Gastric bypass surgery is one of modern surgical techniques of obesity treatment. It involves the division of the stomach into two parts and rearrangement of a segment of the small intestine resulting in full exclusion of it from the gastrointestinal tract. After this procedure patients can loose up to 90% of their weight. This effect is achieved due to the stomach volume reduction (to 50 ml approximately). From there food comes directly to the small intestine which is attached separately to the stomach. Such stomach volume does not allow eating much food.
Process of gastric bypass surgery:
Gastric bypass surgery is performed using laparoscopic technique. A laparoscope with a video camera, tube for carbon dioxide supply and other surgical instruments are inserted through the small incisions in the abdomen. A small gastric pouch is formed and a segment of the small intestine is attached to it. As a result, the distance passed by food from the stomach along the small intestine is reduced considerably. At the end of the procedure all instruments are removed and incisions are closed. A sterile bandage is applied.
Preparation to gastric bypass surgery:
The preoperative preparation procedure is standard and includes provision of blood and urine for biochemical testing, chest X-ray examination, electrocardiography, blood test for hidden viral infections, determination of the Rh factor and blood clotting ability. Additional consultations are held with a pulmonologist, cardiologist, dietitian and anesthesiologist. A comprehensive examination helps to reveal possible contraindications for this procedure.
If a patient takes any medications an attending physician should be informed about it. For a week preceding surgery a patient must follow a special diet to promote loss of liver fat. If the liver turns to be too large due to fat depositions it will be impossible to perform gastric bypass surgery using laparoscopic technique.
Approximately one week before surgery it is necessary to stop taking any medicines thinning the blood and affecting its clotting ability. No eating and drinking is allowed 8 hours before surgery. A few hours prior to the procedure the intestines are purged.
Surgery/procedure duration: 2-4 hours
Anesthesia: general anesthesia
Immediately after surgery a patient is transferred to a clinic ward to stay there for 3 days under doctors’ supervision. If the open method was applied for the procedure this period is extended to 7 days. Painkillers are prescribed if a patient is bothered by pain. When pain gets less intense or subsides completely painkillers are canceled.
On the next day after surgery a patient can get out of bed and take short walks. Therapeutic physical training is often prescribed. Sometimes a patient can experience dizziness while making an attempt to get out of bed. In such event the assistance of relatives or clinic staff is required.
A patients returns to a normal everyday life in approximately 2 weeks. Physical activity and walking in the fresh air will facilitate quick recovery. Still, it is necessary to take care and avoid lifting heavy loads.